";f}o{ phf{sf] k|of]u u/f} jftfj/0fnfO{ yk Iflt x'gaf6 hf]ufcf}+ !! "
   SOLAR PANEL
   A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. Normally we can light up 2 lamps for 4 hours with 10 watt panel. Polycrystalline, Mono crystalline and Amorphous are the three types of solar Panels. These Panels are of high quality such that normal rain, snowfall, and hailstorm cannot do any damages. The normal lifetime of Solar Panel is around 35-40 years.
SOLAR BATTERY
   Solar Batteries (Deep Cycle Batteries) are a key component in a stand-alone renewable energy system. If you are installing a wind, solar panel or hydro electric system that will be tied to your utility grid, you will still need deep cycle batteries if you are trying to use power in the event of an outage.
SOLAR TUKI
   The Solar Tuki is a portable solar lamp unit with white LED bulbs designed to provide rural Nepal with an alternative to traditional kerosene tukis, their main current source of night-time illumination. One benefit is the elimination of fumes and smoke. Another is the elimination of fuel which has to be purchased on an ongoing basis.
SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLERS
  A charge controller is a regulator that goes between the solar panels and the batteries. Regulators for solar systems are designed to keep the batteries charged at peak without overcharging. Meters for Amps (from the panels) and battery Volts are optional with most types. Charge controllers come in various types. Solar charge controllers regulate the charge from a solar panel array to a battery bank. Solar lighting controllers allow you to control DC lights while simultaneously charging a battery bank from solar panels. AC charge controllers allow you to charge your battery bank from an AC source (e.g. household current). Diversion load controllers are often used with wind turbines and micro hydro systems to regulate battery charging. A solar charge controller will protect your batteries from being overcharged by your solar panels and it will block any reverse current (from the batteries) as well. Solar charge controllers will actually protect every aspect of your solar power system from your batteries to your solar panels. Temperature sensors are an inexpensive addition that helps the charge controller more accurately regulate the charge of the battery bank.
   Looking to lower your electrical bill? Furnishing your off grid home? Look in our lighting section for some great ideas! The key to reducing your electrical bill is not necessarily installing a renewable energy system to power your current electrical usage, but reducing your electrical consumption. LED lights are extremely energy efficient, but they do not produce a "bright" light like compact fluorescent bulbs. They give off a more diffuse, blue-toned light that is best suited for task lighting or dark areas that need moderate illumination. The LED lamps and bulbs in this section are for DC (12V or 24V) electrical systems. These CANNOT be used in standard household 120 VAC installations! LED lights are extremely energy efficient, but they do not produce a "bright" light like compact fluorescent bulbs. They give off a more diffuse, blue-toned light that is best suited for task lighting or dark areas that need moderate illumination.
    An "Institutional Solar PV System" (hereafter called ISPS) is a DC or AC Photovoltaic system used for lighting and power supply to appliances like computer, telephone, refrigerator, etc., in public institutions like VDC buildings, schools, health posts, religious buildings, clubs, etc.
    A "Photovoltaic Pumping System" (hereafter called PVPS) is a DC or AC photovoltaic water pumping system operated by photovoltaic electricity to lift water for drinking and drip irrigation purposes.
    Solar water heating (SWH) or solar hot water (SHW) systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. In a "close-coupled" SWH system the storage tank is horizontally mounted immediately above the solar collectors on the roof. No pumping is required as the hot water naturally rises into the tank through thermo siphon flow. In a "pump-circulated" system the storage tank is ground- or floor-mounted and is below the level of the collectors; a circulating pump moves water or heat transfer fluid between the tank and the collectors.